Background: Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. They are grown mainly for their edible beans. Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. Background. [64] They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. RESULTS Review of Politics and Public Policy in Emerging Economies Vol. BACKGROUND. [6] The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows. [49] The cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research tool. Vigna unguiculata is a member of the Vigna (peas and beans) genus. [6] Sesquipedalis in Latin means "foot and a half long", and this subspecies which arrived in the United States via Asia is characterised by unusually long pods, leading to the common names of yardlong bean, asparagus bean, and Chinese long-bean. As the cowpea plant develops, leaves are picked In addition, they supply the essential minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and phosphorus (Aykroyed et al. Over 60% of cowpea growing area is in west and central Africa (WCA), but a Four subspecies of cowpeas are recognised, of which three are cultivated. Chloe Bustillo. [12] However, as the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within varieties is relatively low. Background:Nutritional anemia is a public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren. [66] A popular dish was Hoppin' John, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned with pork. [56] International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria and Institut de I’Environment ae de Recherches Agricoles are working on cowpea crop wild relatives to tap the genetic diversity and transfer that into cultivars to make them more tolerant to different stresses and adaptive to climate change. A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea … [35] More modern methods include storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or heating or freezing the seeds. [42][43] The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed. They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. Cowpea seeds acts as a major source of protein (22-24%), vitamins and minerals (Coetzee 1995). Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. Genetically modified cowpeas are being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the maruca. Adam D. Steinbrenner, Maria Muñoz-Amatriaín, Antonio F. Chaparro, Jessica Montserrat Aguilar-Venegas, Sassoum Lo, Satohiro Okuda, Gaetan Glauser, Julien Dongiovanni, Da Shi, Marlo Hall, Daniel Crubaugh, Nicholas Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Ruben Abagyan, Ted C. J. Turlings, Timothy J. [49] The plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear in the leaves. Unguiculata is Latin for "with a small claw", which reflects the small stalks on the flower petals. Sosulski, 1987; Fashakin, 1986; Philips, 1987; Saeed, 1977; El Hardallou, 1980). [70], The cowpea has often been referred to as "poor man's meat" due to the high levels of protein found in the seeds and leaves. Materials and Methods Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. [4] Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] [37] One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils. However, post-harvest losses associated with this crop still remain a critical issue of concern in most developing countries. [11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta‐cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. It is against this background that the study intends to analyzed the level of the effects of insurgency on cowpea farmers in the study area. Early-maturing varieties of the crop can thrive in the semiarid climate, where rainfall is often less than 500 mm (20 in). Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), is an important grain legume grown in the tropics where it constitutes a valuable source of protein in the diets of millions of people. [60][61] They can also be processed into a paste or flour. [34], Storage of the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests. The pulse is indigenous to Africa (Okigbo, 1986), though it is now grown in other continents, such as Central America (Bressani et al. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS). [32], These characteristics, along with its low fertilisation requirements, make the cowpea an ideal crop for resource-poor farmers living in the Sahel region of West Africa. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. [73] In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). Study subjects will receive 3 times per week, as part of the school feeding programme 66g of raw fortified cowpea (with added 10mg Fe as NaFeEDTA)in form of Toubani (a cowpea based snack). [52], Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. Cowpea is a drought-resistant crop, a characteristic that makes it ideal for growth in East and West Africa. cowpea crop species on the farmers’ land, distribution status, finding the suitable solution for the major production areas in the study area, what are the constraints of cowpea productions in the study area and so on? Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides. [23] A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. 1961) as well as North and South America and Asia. Walp.) They thrive in poor conditions, growing well in soils ipto 85% sand. It is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet. [21], Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but according to a 1997 estimate, cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) and have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes. [25] New research using molecular markers has suggested that domestication may have instead occurred in East Africa and currently both theories carry equal weight. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. [48] Common diseases include blights, root rot, wilt, powdery mildew, root knot, rust and leaf spot. [74], This appears to be one of the latest taxonomical classifications, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "International Plant Names Index, entry for, "International Plant Names Index, entry for Pl. Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is the most important grain legume and fodder crop in the dry savannas of tropical Africa. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. breeding lines in the IIT A collection, seed protein. Cowpea is economically useful as vegetable (leaves), a protein source (seeds and young pods), fodder and pulse crop. Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) serves as a major food and income generation crop for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. [31], The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. Cowpea are major sources of protein in developing countries where consumption of certain animal foods is taboo because of religious or customary beliefs. [45] An individual bruchid can lay 20–40 eggs, and in optimal conditions, each egg can develop into a reproductively active adult in 3 weeks. 1, No 1, June 2019 55 It is a high protein food and forms a … It is mostly cultivated by small-scale (subsistence) farmers, usually intercropped with maize or sorghum. However, field trials confirming the benefits of microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still scarce. 1.1 Background of the Study Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L).Walp) is a tropical grain legume widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia, parts of the United States and Southern Europe (Singh et al., It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. Productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in sub-Sahara Africa is curtailed by a lack of farmer-preferred and improved cultivars and modern production technologies. [57], Cowpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans, although the leaves, green seeds and pods can also be consumed, meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. It is grown on more than 12.5 million hectares of largely smallholder farms, with an estimated production of more than 3 million metric tonnes. Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is a highly important grain legume crop grown in semi-arid and dry savannah agro-ecological zones of the tropics. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. [72], According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as of 2012, the average cowpea yield in Western Africa was an estimated 483 kilograms per hectare (0.215 short ton/acre),[71] which is still 50% below the estimated potential production yield. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. The timing of planting is crucial, as the plant must mature during the seasonal rains. One peduncle can support four or more seed pods. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. It is a member of the leaf beetle family, Chrysomelidae, and not a true weevil.This common pest of stored legumes has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on every continent except Antarctica. [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp) is an indigenous African legume crop that is widely cultivated in the semi-arid tropical regions of Asia, Oceania, Africa, the Middle East, southern United States of America and Central and South America (Singh et al.2002). Background: Productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in sub-Sahara Africa is curtailed by a lack of farmer-preferred and improved cultivars and modern production technologies. Uses of cowpea … In bad infestations, insect pressure is responsible for over 90% loss in yield. [22] Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods. It grows best in regions with an annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm (16 and 28 in). Some abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity. Increase in vegetable protein, vitamin and soluble carbohydrates supply from cowpea in malnourished areas presents a less difficult, less expensive and more energy efficient solution. 1.1 Background Cowpea is a widely grown legume in tropical and subtropical Africa. Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, some two hundred million africans consume Cowpea is grown mainly for the seed and sometimes pods in West Africa, India and South America, but it is grown for both seeds, pods and leaves in East Africa. 2012-01-01. [30] Its nitrogen-fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole crop, the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, or cotton. The specific objectives of this study were to assess: Legumes are primarily important as sources of protein in diets in many parts of the world. [21], The size and shape of the leaves vary greatly, making this an important feature for classifying and distinguishing cowpea varieties. Jav. In a study of 100 cowpea. [18] Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to … [59] Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. Colours include white, cream, green, red, brown, and black, or various combinations. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown The weevil develops into a sexually mature adult within the seed. Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. Background: Beans from cowpea cultivars fertilized with mineral N or inoculated with various rhizobium strains may contain different nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen metabolite composition, which affects the beans' defense mechanisms against pests. Cowpea grains contain around 22% protein and provide a cheap source of dietary protein for low-income urban and rural populations. 1.1 Background to the Study Cowpea is a popular and nutritionally important legume crop in many parts of the world. 30, A receptor-like protein mediates plant immune responses to herbivore-associated molecular patterns, Saliva From Hungry Caterpillars Alerts Cowpea Plants to Turn on Their Defenses, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cowpea&oldid=1001180911, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, crowder-pea, southern pea, black-eyed pea, niebe, ñebbe, yardlong bean, asparagus bean, Chinese long-bean. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, … Cowpea proteins provide the three esential amino acids lysine threonine and methionine, (Dhankher et al 1990. Like other grain legumes, cowpeas are a good source of energy, proteins (amino acids), vitamins, minerals and deitary fiber. Similarly, pr otein content of. [40] While the insect can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the damage occurs during flowering. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) ... the burden of taking care of my kids during the last few months of this study. Consequently, cowpea production should be enhanced. It improves soil fertility because of its ability to fix nitrogen efficiently (up to 240 kg N per hectare) and can leave a fixed- N deposit in the soil of up to 60 – 70 kg/ha for the succecding crop (Rechie, 1985; Kachare, et al.1988). [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of genetic diversity present among a collection of cowpea accessions from Zambia and Malawi using phenotypic traits and single nucleotide … The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, colossus peas and crowther peas. [19][21] Their texture and colour are very diverse. Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world production. Nigeria’s Leader Role In African Union Under President Muhammadu Buhari 2015-2019, GEO-ELECTRIC SOUNDINGS FOR GROUNDWATER EXPLORATION IN PART OF PORT HARCOURT, RIVERS STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA, Nutrient and anti nutrient analysis of Veronia cinerea, DETERMINATION OF BACTERIAL COMPOSITION, HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FISH POND WATER IN NIGERIA, Bio-fertilizers as key player in enhancing soil fertility and crop productivity: A Review, Conversion of food waste to liquid manure, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SOME PROCESSED AND UNPROCESSED LESSER KNOWN VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN NIGERIA, Decline Usage of School Farm Operations Among Agricultural Sciences Students in Secondary Schools, phytochemical components of Struchium Sparganophora (Ewuro Odo) Leaf, EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STORAGE METHODS ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COWPEA GRAINS, COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF COWPEA SEED, Farmers awareness on the effect of Aflatoxin in groundnut (arachis hypogea), PHYTOCHEMICAL AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PAWPAW (Papaya) SEED, heamatological parameters and serum biochemical indices of indgenous sheep fed elephant grass. [38], Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. [17], A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. The seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries, or ground into flour or paste. [24], While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. Legumes are sometimes refserred to as “poor man’s meat” or the “rich man’s vegetable” ( Walker, 1981). [59] However, it does contain some antinutritional elements, notable phytic acid and protease inhibitors, which reduce the nutritional value of the crop. 1994). Black-eyed peas were first introduced to the southern states in the United States and some early varieties had peas squashed closely together in their pods, leading to the other common names of southern pea and crowder pea. PubMed Central. Background to the Study Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata and Vigna Senensis ) are important grain legumes in East and West Africa as well other developing countries (Dovlo et al . Generally, 133,000 seeds are planted per hectare (54,000/acre) for the erect varieties and 60,000 per hectare (24,000/acre) for the climbing and trailing varieties. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. [55] Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops. Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. [26] Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated to the second millennium BCE. [54] Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha. [40] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. Intense efforts to find alternative sources of proteins from plants adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted around the world (Siddhuraju et al. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03. The ideal soils are sandy and it has better tolerance for infertile and acid soil than most other crops. Warm season mixes may also simply outcompete cowpea, specifically warm season grasses such as millet and sorghum-sudangrass. A common snack in Africa is koki or moin-moin, where the cowpeas are mashed into a paste, mixed with spices and steamed in banana leaves. Background. The cowpea is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. [24] Although there is no archaeological evidence for early cowpea cultivation, the centre of diversity of the cultivated cowpea is West Africa, leading an early consensus that this is the likely centre of origin and place of early domestication. [62] This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop. [27] In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. [36] Temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) kill the weevil larvae, leading to a recent push to develop cheap forms of solar heating that can be used to treat stored grain. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils.Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest … Despite the importance of cowpea (Vigna unguculata L. 1995; Bravo et al., 1994; Bhattacharya et al. [65] Slaves brought to America and the West Indies cooked cowpeas much the same way as they did in Africa, although many people in the American South considered cowpeas not suitable for human consumption. Cowpea is most widely consumed legume in Nigeria as it represents a cheap source of dietary protein. 1976). The effect of anti-nutritional factors (tannin, phytic acid , and tryps in inhibitors) on cowpea protein, The proximate and mineral composition of cowpea grains. Callosobruchus maculatus is a species of beetles known commonly as the cowpea weevil or cowpea seed beetle. [12][13] The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. Despite its importance, researchers have fewer ways to study cowpea plants, which means that researchers had to turn to the tobacco plant to test how these receptors actually work. Can be problematic in Africa due to their use as a protein-rich food crop Policy in Economies. Thrips, and South America ) grown for its name ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) with the parasitic! Must mature during the seasonal rains range and cosmopolitan distribution to 85 % sand feeding on the of! ( seeds and young pods ), vitamins and minerals ( Coetzee )! Control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the African continent grown sub-Saharan. 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